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Gender and science

Leon Rocha

This expands considerably Paula Gould's 'Gender and Science' section, which previously appeared in the HPS Research Guide.

* denotes particularly important texts

Introductory texts, ‘greatest hits’, anthologies

Some starting points and introductory guides.

  • * Archer, John and Barbara Lloyd (2002) Sex and Gender, Second Edition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Butler, Judith (1990) 'Performative Acts and Gender Constitution: An Essay in Phenomenology and Feminist Theory' in Sue-Ellen Case (ed.) Performing Feminisms: Feminist Critical Theory and Theatre. Baltimore: John Hopkins University Press, 270-282.
  • Butler, Judith (1992) 'Gender' in Elizabeth Wright (ed.) Feminism and Psychoanalysis: A Critical Dictionary. Oxford: Blackwell, 140-145.
  • * Butler, Judith (1993) Bodies That Matter: On the Discursive Limits of 'Sex'. London: Routledge.
  • * Butler, Judith (1999) Gender Trouble: Feminism and the Subversion of Identity. 10th Anniversary Edition. London: Routledge. Dense and complex and sometimes frustrating, but well worth the wrestle.
  • Butler, Judith (2004) Undoing Gender. London: Routledge.
  • Cavallaro, Dani (2004) French Feminist Theory. London: Continuum.
  • Christie, J.R.R. (1990) 'Feminism and the History of Science' in R C Olby et. al. (eds.) Companion to the History of Modern Science. London: Routledge, 100-109.
  • Cranny-Francis, Anne et. al. (2003) Gender Studies: Terms and Debates. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan. Very useful resource.
  • Fricker, Miranda and Jennifer Hornsby (eds.) (2000) The Cambridge Companion to Feminism in Philosophy. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Particularly the essays by Sally Haslanger, Rae Langton, Genevieve Lloyd and Alison Wylie.
  • Glover, David and Cora Kaplan (2000) Genders (Routledge New Critical Idiom). London: Routledge. A good introduction, not directly relevant to gender and science but gives excellent background in literary theory. All the books in the Routledge New Critical Idiom series are excellent. Try also Discourse, and Sexuality.
  • * Haraway, Donna (1989) Primate Visions: Gender, Race, and Nature in the World of Modern Science. London: Routledge. Essential reading.
  • * Haraway, Donna (1991) Simians, Cyborgs and Women: The Reinvention of Nature. London: Routledge. Read particularly the chapters entitled 'A Cyborg Manifesto' and 'Situated Knowledges'.
  • Haraway, Donna (2003) The Haraway Reader. London: Routledge.
  • Jordanova, Ludmilla (1993) 'Gender and the Historiography of Science' in British Journal for the History of Science, 26, 249-283.
  • * Keller, Evelyn Fox and Helen Longino (1996) Feminism and Science. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Warning: all articles are abridged versions.
  • Kohlstedt, Sally and Helen Longino (1997) 'The Women, Gender and Science Question' in Osiris, 12, 3-15.
  • Merchant, Carolyn (1982) 'Isis Consciousness Raised' in Isis, 73, 398-409.
  • * Nye, Robert (ed.) (1999) Sexuality. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • Oakley, Ann (1997) 'A Brief History of Gender' in Ann Oakley and Juliet Mitchell (eds.) Who's Afraid of Feminism? Seeing Through the Backlash. London: Hamish Hamilton, 29-55.
  • * Riley, Denise (2003) 'Am I That Name?' Feminism and the Category of 'Women' in History. Minnesota: University of Minnesota Press. Short and sweet.
  • Schiebinger, Londa (1987) 'The History and Philosophy of Women in Science: A Review Essay' in Signs: A Journal of Women in Culture and Society, 12, 305-332.
  • * Scott, Joan (1999) 'Gender: A Useful Category of Historical Analysis' in Gender and the Politics of History. New York: Columbia University Press. Essential. The whole book is well worth reading.
  • Smith, Bonnie (1998) The Gender of History: Men, Women, and Historical Practice. Cambridge MA: Harvard University Press.
  • * Tuana, Nancy (ed.) (1989) Feminism and Science. Bloomington: Indiana University Press. See for example the essays by Evelyn Fox Keller and Elizabeth Potter.

Feminist epistemology and philosophy of science

You need to be familiar with Sociology of Scientific Knowledge. For references, see Martin Kusch's page.

  • * Alcoff, Linda and Elizabeth Potter (eds.) (1993) Feminist Epistemologies. London: Routledge. For instance, see Sandra Harding, 'Rethinking Standpoint Epistemology: What is "Strong Objectivity"?',49-83. Also, Helen Longino, 'Subjects, Power and Knowledge', 101-120.
  • Barad, Karen (1999) 'Agential Realism: Feminist Interventions in Understanding Scientific Practices' in Mario Biagioli (ed.) The Science Studies Reader. New York: Routledge.
  • Butler, Judith (1990) 'Performative Acts and Gender Constitution: An Essay in Phenomenology and Feminist Theory' in Sue-Ellen Case (ed.) Performing Feminisms: Feminist Critical Theory and Theatre. Baltimore: John Hopkins University Press, 270-282.
  • Butler, Judith (1992) 'Contingent Foundations: Feminism and the Question of "Postmodernism"' in Judith Butler and Joan Scott (eds.) Feminists Theorise the Political. London: Routledge, 3-21.
  • * Butler, Judith (1993) Bodies That Matter: On the Discursive Limits of 'Sex'. London: Routledge.
  • Butler, Judith (1997a) Excitable Speech: Politics of the Performative. London: Routledge. The first chapter clarifies Butler's appropriation of J.L. Austin's 'performativity'.
  • * Butler, Judith (1999) Gender Trouble: Feminism and the Subversion of Identity. 10th Anniversary Edition. London: Routledge.
  • Butler, Judith (2003) The Judith Butler Reader. Sarah Salih (ed.) London: Blackwell.
  • Code, Lorraine (1991) What Can She Know? Feminist Theory and the Construction of Knowledge. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.
  • Code, Lorraine (1995) Rhetorical Spaces: Essays on Gendered Locations. London: Routledge.
  • Daston, Lorraine (1992) 'Objectivity and the Escape from Perspective' in Social Studies of Science, 22, 597-618.
  • * De Beauvoir, Simone (1977) The Second Sex. London: Vintage. An absolute classic, still essential.
  • Keller, Evelyn Fox (1993) Secrets of Life, Secrets of Death: Essays on Gender, Language and Science. London: Routledge.
  • * Keller, Evelyn Fox (1996) Reflections on Gender and Science. 10th Anniversary Edition. New Haven: Yale University Press.
  • * Haraway, Donna (1989) Primate Visions: Gender, Race, and Nature in the World of Modern Science. London: Routledge. Particularly the chapter entitled 'Teddy-Bear Patriarchy'.
  • * Haraway, Donna (1991) 'A Cyborg Manifesto: Science, Technology and Socialist-Feminism in the Late Twentieth Century' in Simians, Cyborgs and Women: The Reinvention of Nature. London: Routledge, 149-181.
  • * Haraway, Donna (1991) 'Situated Knowledges: The Science Question in Feminism and the Privilege of Partial Perspective' in Simians, Cyborgs and Women: The Reinvention of Nature. London: Routledge, 183-201.
  • Haraway, Donna (1997) Modest_Witness@Second_Millennium.FemaleMan_ Meets_OncoMouse: Feminism and Technoscience. London: Routledge.
  • Haraway, Donna (1999) 'The Promises of Monsters: A Regenerative Politics for Inappropriate/d Others' in Jenny Wolmark (ed.) Cybersexualities: A Reader on Feminist Theory, Cyborgs and Cyberspace. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.
  • Haraway, Donna (2000) How Like a Leaf: An Interview with Thyrza Nichols Goodeve. London: Routledge.
  • Harding, Sandra (1986) The Science Question in Feminism. Ithaca: Cornell University Press. Very important.
  • Harding, Sandra and Jean O'Barr (1987) Sex and Scientific Inquiry. Chicago: Chicago University Press.
  • Hartman, Joan and Ellen Messer-Davidow (eds.) (1991) (En)Gendering Knowledge: Feminists in Academe. Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press. See, for example, Ellen Messer-Davidow, 'Know-How', 281-309.
  • Hekman, Susan (1996) Feminist Interpretations of Michel Foucault. Penn State University Press.
  • Hirsch, Marianne and Evelyn Fox Keller (1991) Conflicts in Feminism. London: Routledge.
  • Laslett, Barbara, et. al. (eds.) (1996) Gender and Scientific Authority. Chicago: Chicago University Press.
  • * Longino, Helen (1990) Science as Social Knowledge: Values and Objectivity in Scientific Inquiry. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
  • Longino, Helen (1999) 'Feminist Epistemology' in John Greco and Ernest Sosa (eds.) The Blackwell Guide to Epistemology. Oxford: Blackwell, 327-353.
  • * Nelson, Lynn and Jack Nelson (1996) Feminism, Science, and the Philosophy of Science. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Press. See particularly, Susan Haack, 'Science as Social? – Yes and No', 79-94. Ilkka Niiniluoto, 'The Relativism Question in Feminist Epistemology', 139-157. Joseph Rouse, 'Feminism and the Social Construction of Knowledge', 195-215. Elisabeth Lloyd, 'Science and Anti-Science: Objectivity and its Real Enemies', 217-259. Very useful collection of essays.
  • Olson, Richard (1990) 'Historical Reflections on Feminist Critiques of Science: The Scientific Background to Modern Feminism' in History of Science, 28, 125-147.
  • Pinnick, Cassandra (1994) 'Feminist Epistemology: Implications for Philosophy of Science' in Philosophy of Science, 61, 646-657.
  • Rose, Hilary (1994) Love, Power and Knowledge: Towards a Feminist Transformation of the Sciences. Indiana University Press.
  • * Schiebinger, Londa (1999) Has Feminism Changed Science? Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
  • Tanesini, Alessandra (1999) An Introduction to Feminist Epistemologies. Malden: Blackwell Publishers.
  • Young, Iris (1990) 'Throwing Like a Girl' and Other Essays in Feminist Philosophy and Social Theory. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.

Gender, sexuality, biology and medicine

Includes references for topics such as feminist anthropology, history of medicine and psychiatry, intersexuality ('hermaphroditism'), transsexualism, homosexuality, sexology, genetics, evolutionary psychology etc.

  • Arney, William Ray (1985) Power and the Profession of Obstetrics. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
  • Barbin, Herculine (1980) Herculine Barbin: Being the Recently Discovered Memoirs of a Nineteenth-century French Hermaphrodite. Michel Foucault (intro.) and Richard McDougall (trans.) Brighton: Harvester Press.
  • Baron-Cohen, Simon (2004) The Essential Difference. London: Penguin. Maybe a good text to analyse.
  • Bayer, Ronald (1981) Homosexuality and American Psychiatry: The Politics of Diagnosis. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
  • Benjamin, Marina (ed.) (1991) Science and Sensibility: Gender and Scientific Inquiry 1780-1945. Oxford: Oxford University Press. See for example the paper by Ornella Moscucci, 'Hermaphroditism and Sex Difference: The Construction of Gender in Victorian England', 174-199. Also, Mark Micale, 'Hysteria Male / Hysteria Female: Reflections on Comparative Gender Construction in Nineteenth-Century France and Britain', 200-239. Most importantly, Londa Schiebinger, 'The Private Life of Plants: Sexual Politics in Carl Linnaeus and Erasmus Darwin', 121-143.
  • Bland, Lucy and Laura Doan (eds.) (1998a) Sexology in Culture: Labelling Bodies and Desires. Cambridge: Polity.
  • Bland, Lucy and Laura Doan (eds.) (1998b) Sexology Uncensored: The Documents of Sexual Science. Cambridge: Polity.
  • Bleier, Ruth (1984) Science and Gender: A Criticism of Biology and its Theories on Women. New York: Pergamon Press.
  • Browne, Kingsley (2002) Biology at Work: Rethinking Sexual Equality. New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press. Evolutionary psychology. Discusses the 'glass ceiling'.
  • Bullough, Vern and Bonnie Bullough (1993) Cross Dressing, Sex and Gender. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.
  • Chauncey, Geoffrey (2004) Making of a Modern Gay World: 1935-1975. New York: Basic Books.
  • * Chiland, Colette (2003) Transsexualism: Illusion and Reality. London: Continuum. A joy to read.
  • Cohen, Deborah (1993) 'Private Lives in Public Spaces: Marie Stopes, the Mothers' Clinics and the Practice of Contraception' in History Workshop Journal, 35, 95-116.
  • * Colapinto, John (1997) 'The True Story of John/Joan' in Rolling Stone, 11-12-1997, 54-97. Available online [http://www.pfc.org.uk/node/905]. Very important article on intersexuality.
  • Colapinto, John (2000) As Nature Made Him: The Boy Who Was Raised as a Girl. London: Harper Collins.
  • Conway, Jill (1972) 'Stereotypes of Femininity in a Theory of Evolution' in Martha Vicinus (ed.) Suffer and be Still: Women in the Victorian Age. Bloomington: University of Indiana Press, 140-154.
  • Corea, Gena (1988) The Mother Machine: Reproductive Technologies from Artificial Insemination to Artificial Wombs. London: Women's Press.
  • Cronin, Helena (1993) The Ant and the Peacock: Altruism and Sexual Selection from Darwin to Today. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Daston, Lorraine (1992) 'The Naturalised Female Intellect' in Science in Context, 5, 209-235.
  • Di Leonardo, Michaela (1991) Gender at the Crossroads of Knowledge: Feminist Anthropology in the Postmodern Era. Berkeley: University of California Press. Particularly Michaela Di Leonardo, 'Introduction: Gender, Culture and Political Economy: Feminist Anthropology in Historical Perspective', 1-48.
  • Dreger, Alice Domurat (1999) Intersex in the Age of Ethics. Hagerstown: University Publishing Group.
  • * Dreger, Alice Domurat (2000) Hermaphrodites and the Medical Invention of Sex. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. An excellent book.
  • Fausto-Sterling, Anne (1986) Myths of Gender: Biological Theories about Women and Men. London: Basic Books.
  • * Fausto-Sterling, Anne (2001) Sexing the Body: Gender Politics and the Construction of Sexuality. London: Basic Books. Very provocative, an excellent resource too.
  • Foerstel, Lenora and Angela Gilliam (eds.) (1994) Confronting the Margaret Mead Legacy: Scholarship, Empire, and the South Pacific. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.
  • * Foucault, Michel (1990) The History of Sexuality, in 3 vols. Vol. 1: The Will to Knowledge. Vol. 2: The Use of Pleasure. Vol. 3: The Care of the Self. Robert Hurley (trans.) London: Penguin. No introduction necessary. Volume 1 is extremely important.
  • Foucault, Michel (1977) Discipline and Punish: The Birth of the Prison. New York: Pantheon.
  • * Foucault, Michel (1980) Power/Knowledge: Selected Interviews and Other Writings 1972-1977. Brighton: Harvester. Also, try Rabinow's Foucault Reader.
  • Garber, Marjorie (1997) Vested Interests: Cross-Dressing and Cultural Anxiety. London: Routledge.
  • Gates, Barbara and Ann Shteir (1997) Natural Eloquence: Women Reinscribe Science. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press.
  • Gathorne-Hardy, Jonathan (2000) Sex the Measure of All Things: A Life of Alfred C. Kinsey. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.
  • * Gilman, Sander (1999) Making the Body Beautiful: A Cultural History of Aesthetic Surgery. Princeton: Princeton University Press. Insighful, packed with details, a joy to read.
  • Ginsburg, Faye and Rayna Rapp (1991) 'The Politics of Reproduction' in Annual Review of Anthropology, 20, 311-343.
  • Griggs, Claudine (1998) S/He: Changing Sex and Changing Clothes. New York: New York University Press.
  • * Hager, Lori (ed.) (1997) Women in Human Evolution. London: Routledge. See particularly the articles by Hager and Zihilman.
  • Haiken, Elizabeth (1997) Venus Envy: A History of Cosmetic Surgery. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.
  • Herdt, Gilbert (ed.) (1994) Third Sex, Third Gender: Beyond Sexual Dimorphism in Culture and History. New York: Zone Books.
  • Hocquenghem, Guy (1993) Homosexual Desire. Durham: Duke University Press.
  • * House of Lords (2003) 'Gender Recognition Bill' [http://www.publications.parliament.uk/pa/ld200304/ldbills/004/2004004.htm]. Excellent read, try analysing the scientific basis (or its lack of) in the assertions on gender in this extremely important document. For anyone interested in the use of gender and science in the Law, gay rights etc. there are plenty of useful materials on the UK Department of Constitutional Affairs Website. Try the Bellinger v. Bellinger case (transsexual marriage and transsexual rights).
  • Hubbard, Ruth (1990) The Politics of Women's Biology. New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press.
  • Jacobus, Mary, Evelyn Fox Keller and Sally Shuttleworth (eds.) (1990) Body Politics: Women and the Discourse of Science. London: Routledge.
  • * Keller, Evelyn Fox (1996) Refiguring Life: Metaphors of Twentieth-Century Biology. New York: Columbia University Press.
  • Keller, Evelyn Fox (2000) The Century of the Gene. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. A short, quick read.
  • * Kessler, Suzanne (1990) 'The Medical Construction of Gender: The Case Management of Intersexed Infants' in Signs: A Journal of Women in Culture and Society, 16, 3-26. Very influential.
  • * Laqueur, Thomas (1990) Making Sex: Body and Gender from the Greeks to Freud. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. Another extremely useful text.
  • Laqueur, Thomas (2003) Solitary Sex: A Cultural History of Masturbation. New York: Zone Books.
  • Lorber, Judith (1994) Paradoxes of Gender. New Haven: Yale University Press.
  • Loudon, Irvine (1994) 'Childbirth' in W.F. Bynum and Roy Porter (eds.) Companion Encyclopaedia of the History of Modern Medicine Vol. 2. London: Routledge, 1050-1071. A quick introduction to obstetrics, and the feminist issues involved.
  • Lunbeck, Elizabeth (1994) The Psychiatric Persuasion: Knowledge, Gender, and Power in Modern America. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 222-236.
  • MacCormack, Carol and Marilyn Strathern (1980) Nature, Culture and Gender. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Marks, Lara (2001) Sexual Chemistry: A History of the Contraceptive Pill. New Haven: Yale University Press.
  • Meyeorwitz, Joanne (2002) How Sex Changed: A History of Transsexuality in the Untied States. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
  • Midgley, Mary (1998) Animals and Why They Matter. University of Georgia Press.
  • Moscucci, Ornella (1993) The Science of Woman: Gynaecology and Gender in England, 1800-1929. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Oakley, Ann (1984) The Captured Womb: A History of the Medical Care of Pregnant Women. Oxford: Blackwell.
  • * Ortner, Sherry (1974) 'Is Female to Male as Nature is to Culture?' in Michelle Rosaldo and Louise Lamphere (eds.) Woman, Culture and Society. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 67-87.
  • * Oudshoorn, Nelly (1994) Beyond the Natural Body: An Archaeology of Sex Hormones. London: Routledge. An excellent book on endocrinology and the Oral Contraceptive.
  • Oudshoorn, Nelly (2003) The Male Pill: A Biography of a Technology in the Making. Durham: Duke University Press.
  • Peiss, Kathy and Christina Simmons (eds.) (1989) Passion and Power: Sexuality in History. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.
  • Poovey, Mary (1989) Uneven Developments: The Ideological Work of Gender in Mid-Victorian England. London: Virago.
  • Richards, Evelleen (1989) 'Huxley and Woman's Place in Science: The "Woman Question" and the Control of Victorian Anthropology' in James Moore (ed.) History, Humanity, and Evolution: Essays for John C. Greene. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 253-284.
  • Robinson, Paul (1989) The Modernisation of Sex: Havelock Ellis, Alfred Kinsey, William Masters, and Virginia Johnson. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.
  • Rosario, Vernon (ed.) (1997) Science and Homosexualities. London: Routledge.
  • * Rubin, Gayle (1975) 'The Traffic in Women: Notes on the "Political Economy" of Sex' in Rayna Rapp (d.) Toward an Anthropology of Women. New York: Monthly Review Press, 157-210.
  • Russett, Cynthia (1991) Sexual Science: Victorian Construction of Womanhood. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
  • Saetnan, Ann, Nelly Oudshoorn and Marta Kirejczyk (eds.) (2000) Bodies of Technology: Women's Involvement with Reproductive Medicine. Ohio State University Press.
  • * Schiebinger, Londa (1995) Nature's Body: Gender in the Making of Modern Science. Boston: Beacon Press.
  • Schiebinger, Londa (ed.) (2000) Feminism and the Body. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • Sedgwick, Eve Kosofsky (1993) 'How To Bring Your Kids Up Gay' in Michael Warner (ed.) Fear of a Queer Planet: Queer Politics and Social Theory. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 69-81. A hilarious (and frightening) article, good introduction for 'gender identity disorders' in children.
  • Spanier, Bonnie (1995) Im/partial Science: Gender Ideology in Molecular Biology. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.
  • * Stepan, Nancy Leys (1993) 'Race and Gender: The Role of Analogy in Science' in Sandra Harding (ed.) The 'Racial' Economy of Science: Toward A Democratic Future. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 359-376.
  • * Stoller, Robert (1985) Presentations of Gender. New York: Yale University Press. Absolutely essential, read 'Primer' if pressed.
  • Stoller, Robert (1997) Splitting: A Case of Female Masculinity. New Haven: Yale University Press.
  • Stone, Sandy (1993) 'The "Empire" Strikes Back: A Posttranssexual Manifesto' [http://www.sandystone.com/empire-strikes-back].
  • Taylor, Gary (2000) Castration: Western Manhood from Jesus to the Posthuman. London: Routledge.
  • Van der Wijngaard, Marianne (1997) Reinventing the Sexes: The Biomedical Construction of Femininity and Masculinity. Indiana University Press.
  • Watkins, Elizabeth Siegel (1998) On the Pill: A Social History of Oral Contraceptives 1950-1970. Baltimore: John Hopkins University Press.
  • Weeks, Jeffrey (1989) Sex, Politics, and Society: The Regulation of Sexuality Since 1800. London: Longman.
  • * Weeks, Jeffrey (1991) Sexuality and its Discontents: Meanings, Myths and Modern Sexualities. London: Routledge. An excellent book, easy to read.
  • Weeks, Jeffrey (2000) Making Sexual History. Malden: Polity Press.
  • Whittle, Stephen (2000) The Transgender Debate: The Crisis Surrounding Gender Identity. London: South Street Press.

Psychoanalysis, sexual difference and subjectivity

  • * Appignanesi, Lisa and John Forrester (2000) Freud's Women. London: Penguin. Read particularly the part entitled 'The Question of Femininity'.
  • Butler, Judith (1997b) The Psychic Life of Power: Theories in Subjection. Stanford: Stanford University Press.
  • Butler, Judith (2002) Antigone's Claim: Kinship Between Life and Death. New York: Columbia University Press.
  • Plus other works by Judith Butler listed above.
  • Chodorow, Nancy (2001) The Power of Feelings: Personal Meaning in Psychoanalysis, Gender and Culture. New Haven: Yale University Press.
  • Dean, Tim and Christopher Lane (eds.) (2001) Homosexuality and Psychoanalysis. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
  • Evans, Dylan (2003) An Introductory Dictionary of Lacanian Psychoanalysis. London: Brunner-Routledge. An essential tool for researching psychoanalysis.
  • * Freud, Sigmund (1905) 'Three Essays on the Theory of Sexuality' in Standard Edition VII, 130-243.
  • Freud, Sigmund (1923) 'The Infantile Genital Organisation' in Standard Edition XIX, 141-145.
  • Freud, Sigmund (1925) 'Some Psychical Consequences of the Anatomical Distinction Between the Sexes' in Standard Edition XIX, 248-258.
  • Freud, Sigmund (1931) 'Female Sexuality' in Standard Edition XXI, 225-243.
  • * Freud, Sigmund (1932) 'Lecture XXXIII: Femininity' in Standard Edition XXII, New Introductory Lectures, 112-135.
  • Grosz, Elizabeth (1990) Jacques Lacan : A Feminist Introduction. London: Routledge.
  • Klein, Melanie (1991) The Selected Melanie Klein. Juliet Mitchell (ed.) London: Penguin.
  • Lacan, Jacques (1984) Feminine Sexuality: Jacques Lacan and the Ecole Freudienne. Juliet Mitchell and Jacqueline Rose (eds.) London: Macmillan. The introductory essays by Mitchell and Rose are excellent. Read with Evans (2003).
  • Mitchell, Juliet (2000) Psychoanalysis and Feminism: A Radical Reassessment of Freudian Psychoanalysis. London: Penguin. Part I is particularly excellent.
  • Mitchell, Juliet (2001) Mad Men and Medusas: Reclaiming Hysteria. New York: Basic Books.
  • Richmond, Sarah (2000) 'Feminism and Psychoanalysis: Using Melanie Klein' in Miranda Fricker and Jennifer Hornsby (eds.) The Cambridge Companion to Feminism in Philosophy. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 68-86.
  • Salecl, Renata (ed.) (2000) Sexuation. Durham: Duke University Press. Difficult, and sometimes confusing and frustrating, nonetheless a good book for those who want to wrestle with Lacan's idea of sexuation.
  • * Sedgwick, Eve Kosofsky (1991) Epistemology of the Closet. London: Harvester Wheatsheaf. Essential, but not for the light-hearted.
  • Zizek, Slavoj (2001) Enjoy Your Symptom! Jacques Lacan in Hollywood and Out. London: Routledge. Adds basic Lacanian ideas to your armoury.

Women in the scientific community

  • Abir-Am, Pnina and Dorinda Outram (eds.) Uneasy Careers and Intimate Lives: Women in Science, 1789-1979. New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press.
  • Alic, Margaret (1986) Hypatia's Heritage: A History of Women in Science from Antiquity to the Late Nineteenth Century. London: Women's Press.
  • Barr, Jean and Lynda Birke (1998) Common Science?: Women, Science, and Knowledge. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.
  • * Fara, Patricia (2004) Pandora's Breeches: Women, Science and Power in the Enlightenment. London: Pimlico.
  • Ferry, Georgina (1998) Dorothy Hodgkin: A Life. London: Granta Books.
  • Gould, Paula (1997) 'Women and the Culture of University Physics in Late Nineteenth-century Cambridge' in British Journal for the History of Science, 30, 127-150.
  • Kass-Simon, Gabriele and Patricia Farnes (1986) Women of Science: Righting the Record. Indianapolis: Indiana University Press.
  • * Keller, Evelyn Fox (1983) A Feeling for the Organism: The Life and Work of Barbara McClintock. New York: W.H. Freeman.
  • Maddox, Brenda (2003) Rosalind Franklin: The Dark Lady of DNA. London: Harper Collins.
  • McNeil, Maureen (ed.) (1987) Gender and Expertise. London: Free Association Books.
  • * Ogilvie, Marilyn and Jon Harvey (2000) The Biographical Dictionary of Women in Science: Pioneering Lives from Ancient Times to the Mid-20th Century. London: Routledge. An excellent resource.
  • Pycior, Helena, Nancy Slack and Pnina Abir-Am (eds.) (1996) Creative Couples in the Sciences. New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press. For example, see Helena Pycior, 'Pierre Curie and "his eminent collaborator Mme Curie": Complementary Partners', 39-56; Bernadette Bensaude-Vincent, 'Star Scientists in a Nobelist family: Irene and Frederic Joliot-Curie', 57-71; Barbara Becker, 'Dispelling the Myth of the Able Assistant: Margaret and William Huggins at work in the Tulse Hill Observatory', 98-111.
  • Rossiter, Margaret (1982) Women Scientists in America: Struggles and Strategies to 1940. Baltimore: John Hopkins University Press.
  • * Schiebinger, Londa (1989) The Mind Has No Sex? Women in the Origins of Modern Science. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
  • Shteir, Ann (1996) Cultivating Women, Cultivating Science: Flora's Daughters and Botany in England 1760 to 1860. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.
  • Sime, Ruth (1997) Lise Meitner: A Life in Physics. Berkeley: University of California Press.
  • Tomaselli, Sylvana (1988) 'Collecting Women: The Female in Scientific Biography' in Science as Culture, 4, 95-106.
  • Weisbard, Phyllis (ed.) (1993) The History of Women and Science, Health, and Technology. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press.
  • Wertheim, Margaret (1995) Pythagoras' trousers: God, Physics, and the Gender Wars. New York: Times Books.

Gender, technology, technoscience and cyberspace

  • Cockburn, Cynthia (1983) Brothers: Male Dominance and Technological Change. London: Pluto Press.
  • Cockburn, Cynthia (1985) Machinery of Dominance: Women, Men and Technical Know-How. London: Pluto Press.
  • Cockburn, Cynthia and Ruza Furst-Dilic (eds.) Bringing Technology Home: Gender and Technology in a Changing Europe. Buckingham: Open University Press.
  • Cockburn, Cynthia and Susan Ormond (1993) Gender and Technology in the Making. London: SAGE.
  • Cowan, Ruth Schwartz (1983) More Work for Mother: The Ironies of Household Technology from the Open Hearth to the Microwave. New York: Basic Books.
  • * Creager, Angela, Elizabeth Lunbeck and Londa Schiebinger (eds.) (2001) Feminism in Twentieth-century Science, Technology and Medicine. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
  • Gray, Chris Hables, Steven Mentor and Heidi Figueroa-Sarriera (eds.) (1995) The Cyborg Handbook. London: Routledge.
  • Grint, Keith and Rosalind Gill (eds.) (1995) The Gender-Technology Relation: Contemporary Theory and Research. Bristol: Taylor and Francis.
  • * Haraway, Donna (1991) Simians, Cyborgs and Women: The Reinvention of Nature. London: Routledge.
  • Haraway, Donna (1997) Modest_Witness@Second_Millennium.FemaleMan_ Meets_OncoMouse: Feminism and Technoscience. London: Routledge.
  • Hopkins, Patrick (ed.) (1998) Sex/Machine: Readings in Culture, Gender and Technology. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.
  • Jordanova, Ludmilla (1989) Sexual Visions: Images of Gender in Science and Medicine Between the Eighteenth and Twentieth Centuries. New York: Harvester Wheatsheaf.
  • Kirkup, Gill et. al. (eds.) (2000) The Gendered Cyborg: A Reader. London: Routledge.
  • Kirkup, Gill and Laurie Smith Keller (eds.) (1992) Inventing Women: Science, Technology and Gender. Cambridge: Polity.
  • Lupton, Ellen (1993) Mechanical Brides: Women and Machines from Home to Office. New York: Cooper-Hewitt.
  • Lykke, Nina and Rosi Braidotti (eds.) (1996) Between Monsters, Goddesses and Cyborgs: Feminist Confrontations with Science, Medicine and Cyberspace. Atlantic Highlands: Zed.
  • MacKenzie, Donald and Judy Wajcman (eds.) (1999) The Social Shaping of Technology. Buckingham: Open University Press.
  • Martin, Michele (1991) 'Hello, Central': Gender, Technology and Culture in the Formation of Telephone Systems. Montreal: McGill-Queen's University Press.
  • * Oudshoorn, Nelly (1994) Beyond the Natural Body: An Archaeology of Sex Hormones. London: Routledge.
  • Plant, Sadie (1998) Zeros and Ones: Digital Women and the New Technoculture. London: Fourth Estate.
  • Selinger, Evan (ed.) (2003) Chasing Technoscience: Matrix for Materiality. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.
  • Stanworth, Michelle (ed.) (1987) Reproductive Technologies: Gender, Motherhood and Medicine. Cambridge: Polity.
  • * Wajcman, Judy (1991) Feminism Confronts Technology. Cambridge: Polity. See for instance the article entitled 'Delivered into Man's Hands? The Social Construction of Reproductive Technology' by Wajcman.
  • Wajcman, Judy (2004) TechnoFeminism. Cambridge: Polity.