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Early Medicine

Minor Subject 113 in Part II Biological and Biomedical Sciences (BBS)
Specified Subject 11 in Part II of the History Tripos

Part II students' guide: BBS options

Paper managers: Dániel Margócsy and Emma Spary

Lectures are held in the Department of History and Philosophy of Science unless otherwise stated.

Please note that there have been some changes to the scheduling of lectures in Lent Term.


Michaelmas Term
Medieval Medicine
Sachiko Kusukawa (2), Mary Brazelton (2)
Fri 12noon (weeks 1–4)
Early Modern and Enlightenment Medicine
Emma Spary (2), Dániel Margócsy (1), Sachiko Kusukawa (1)
Fri 12noon (weeks 5–8)
Early Modern Life Sciences and Medicine
Emma Spary (1), Dániel Margócsy (3)
Tue 12noon (weeks 5–8)
Lent Term
Early Modern and Enlightenment Medicine (continued)
Dániel Margócsy (2), Emma Spary (2)
Fri 12noon (weeks 1–4)
Visual and Material Culture
Sachiko Kusukawa (2), Dániel Margócsy (2)
Fri 12noon (weeks 5–8)
Sources in Medical History
Dániel Margócsy (2), Emma Spary (1), Sachiko Kusukawa (1)
The lecture on 12 March (week 8) will be in Seminar Room 10, Faculty of History
Tue 12noon (weeks 5–8)

This paper covers medical knowledge and practices in the medieval and early modern periods. Themes include tradition, innovation and the transmission of knowledge; the value of reason and experience; patient-practitioner relationships; gender and medicine; pluralism and the marketplace; understandings of the body and disease; medicine, magic and religion.

Aims and learning outcomes

  • to acquaint students with fundamental issues in the historiography of medicine before 1750;
  • to introduce students to the western tradition of medical ideas and practices in the medieval and early modern worlds;
  • to provide students with an understanding of the continuities and changes in the social and cultural institutions in which medicine and healing were embedded from antiquity to the enlightenment;
  • to encourage students to explore notions of the patient-practitioner relationship, the medical marketplace, theoretical and practical knowledge, and definitions of disease.


Medieval Medicine
Sachiko Kusukawa, Mary Brazelton (4 lectures, Michaelmas Term)

These lectures provide an overview of medieval medicine from a global perspective. In the Mediterranean world Graeco-Roman medicine constituted a shared heritage of learning based on the writings attributed to Hippocrates and Galen. While surviving in fragmentary form in the west this heritage was received in its fullest form and assimilated by the societies of the Islamicate world. Islamic medicine was translated and received in the Latin west in successive waves from the 11th to the 13th centuries. New ways of teaching medicine were developed in the universities, but the basis of medical practice in east and west, and the functioning of the medical marketplace, were remarkably consistent. In contrast, Chinese medicine in the early modern period produced a remarkable range of doctrinal, therapeutic, and regional variation within the classical medical tradition. Topics include medical institutions, texts and practices scholastic medicine and surgery, diagnosis and prognosis, leprosy, the printing and circulation of medical texts, cross-cultural encounters, and the experience of being ill in the Middle Ages.

Early Modern and Enlightenment Medicine
Emma Spary, Dániel Margócsy, Sachiko Kusukawa (8 lectures, Michaelmas and Lent Terms)

These lectures provide an overview of medicine in early modern Europe (1500–1750). We will examine ways in which Greek and Arab medicine, anatomy and natural philosophy were foundational to medical theory and practices, and how these ancient and medieval views came under attack. Central themes of the course include change and continuity in theories of the body and disease, practices of maintaining health and healing, experiences of patients, and in the broad spectrum of practitioners available. We will study how different practitioners were trained and how they interacted both with each other and their patients. During this period important discoveries were made in anatomical theatres, in alchemical laboratories, in the New World and under microscopes, and we consider their influence on medical theory and practice. In addition to drawing upon learned and vernacular medical, religious and literary texts, we will consider what contemporary visual and material culture can teach us about the history of early modern medicine.

Early Modern Life Sciences and Medicine
Emma Spary, Dániel Margócsy (4 lectures, Michaelmas Term)

These lectures provide an introduction to the paper by exploring what it means to study the history of medicine, natural history, and related disciplines before c.1750. Centering on health, diseases, and the natural environment, they introduce the major themes and methods that historians have used to study the ways in which medical and natural knowledge were made, health and the body understood, and illness and diseases prevented and cured hundreds of years ago. We will begin with questions about who did these things, how they did them, and why.

Visual and Material Culture
Sachiko Kusukawa, Dániel Margócsy (4 lectures, Lent Term)

This set of four lectures examines the visual and material dimensions of scientific and medical knowledge in Europe in the early modern period. In contrast to traditional approaches focusing on text, theories and ideas, we discuss how text, image and object were used to make, mobilize and defend new forms of knowledge about nature. Topics discussed will include Vesalius, Galileo, Leeuwenhoek, and Linnaeus.

Sources in Medical History
Dániel Margócsy, Emma Spary, Sachiko Kusukawa (4 lectures, Lent Term)

These lectures provide an overview of the sources historians of medicine use in order to interpret the past. We critically evaluate what biases printed, archival, visual and material sources of evidence bring to the study of the past, and what interpretive techniques need to be applied to the study of such sources. We discuss how different sources are available for the study of elite, learned, vernacular and/or medical practices in the period. The lectures treat in detail how to study casebooks, printed books, medical and anatomical collections, and medical archives.

Preliminary reading

Textbooks and monographs:

  • Cook, Harold, Trials of an Ordinary Doctor: Joannes Groenevelt in 17th-Century London (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1994)
  • Duden, Barbara, The Woman Beneath the Skin: A Doctor's Patients in 18th-Century Germany, translated by Thomas Dunlap (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1991)
  • Elmer, Peter (ed), The Healing Arts: Health, Disease and Society in Europe, 1500–1800 (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2004)
  • Fissell, Mary, Vernacular Bodies: The Politics of Reproduction in Early Modern England (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004)
  • French, Roger, Medicine Before Science: The Rational and Learned Doctor from the Middle Ages to the Enlightenment (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2003)
  • MacDonald, Michael, Mystical Bedlam: Madness, Anxiety and Healing in 17th-Century England (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1981)
  • Park, Katharine, Secrets of Women: Gender, Generation and the Origins of Human Dissection (New York: Zone Books, 2006)
  • Pelling, Margaret, The Common Lot: Sickness, Medical Occupations and the Urban Poor in Early Modern England (London: Longman, 1998)
  • Pomata, Gianna, Contracting a Cure: Patients, Healers and the Law in Early Modern Bologna (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1998)
  • Porter, Roy, The Greatest Benefit to Mankind (London: HarperCollins, 1997)
  • Siraisi, Nancy, Medieval and Early Renaissance Medicine (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1990)
  • Siraisi, Nancy, The Clock and the Mirror: Girolamo Cardano and Renaissance Medicine (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1997)

Biographies and novels:

  • Manzoni, Alessandro, The Betrothed (1827)
  • Pears, Iain, An Instance of the Fingerpost (London: Jonathan Cape, 1997)
  • Tomalin, Claire, Samuel Pepys: The Unequalled Self (London: Viking, 2002)

Resources for Early Medicine on Moodle